Sunday, January 31, 2010

Jauk and Telek

These masked figures which still exist in Bali today. The males are called jauk. They wear special conical, pointed chandelier-like head-dress in the shape of a Buddhist stupa. The masks are similar in form and bright red color. The style of carving and painting resembles the mask of Rawana in Wayang Wong. The face is fierce, with large eyes, shiny visible teeth, and moustache and beard. The dancers wear long artificial finger-nails. The corresponding female characters are called telek. Their refined masks are also uniform; they are white in colour with visible teeth, but the expression is pleasant and smiling; these masks are identical to the Sang Hyang Legong masks preserved in Ketewel. The female dencers also wear the identifying pagoda-shaped crown and carry fans. (in Sanur area these dancers are called sandaran rather than telek).
At the present time the jauk dancers are rarely seen in dance-drama, and the telek dancers are hardly to be found at all. Two style of solo dance for a male dancer clad as jauk, however, are commonly included in concerts presenting a sampling of different kinds of Balinese dance.

From: Balinese Dance in Transition

Thursday, January 14, 2010

Dances of the Inner Temple

-->The genres considered in this article belong to the most sacred (wali) category of Balinese performing arts. They all appear to be of indigenous origin, although later Hindu-Javanese elements can be seen in them as well as the characteristic poses, gestures, and phrases of movement which make up the fundamental vocabulary of movement of Balinese dance. All of these forms belong to what might be called the communal, village-centred aspect of Balinese culture and involve a strong element of audience participation ; the degree of training and basic talent required of the performers are low by Balinese standards. Aesthetic factors, however, are important in some of them. In Gabor, for example, the skill of dancers is as important as the beauty of the offerings presented.
Trance is often present in these genres, and with it there is presumption of possession by divine. Wali Dances are performed in connection with religious rituals, and they are often given in the context of elaborate schedule of festivals of the Hindu-Balinese religious calendar. Some of them are specifically associated with the old-fashioned Bali Aga villages, in which many in old Balinese traditions and practices have been maintained, while others are found in villages throughout the island. The Wali Dances are customarily performed in or originate from the sacred inner temple courtyard, or Jeroan. This is the most sacred temple space, the inner sanctum.

Wednesday, January 13, 2010

The Beginnings of Tourism to 1840

Tourism is a recent phenomenon. Even if business travel is included as tourism, as it is in some definitions, it is still of comparatively recent origin. The word tourism did not appear in the English language until the early nineteenth century, and the word tour was more closely associated with the idea of a voyage or peregrination or a circuit, as in the case of a theatrical tour, than with the idea of an individual being temporarily away from home for pleasure purposes which is such a significant feature of the use of the word tourist today.
Three principal epochs of tourism may be distinguished. The first, which is discussed in this chapter, takes the story to the early days of the railway age, that is, to about 1840 in Britain, a little later elsewhere. The second epoch covers the railway age itself. The years between the two world wars, which witnessed the significant development of the private motor car and of teh bus and coach, and the period after the second world war, when civil aviation came to share with the private car the principal transport role in tourism, form together the third epoch.
Transport is the necessary pre-condition of tourism, and the three epochs are to be identified with particular modes of transport. For tourism is a matter of being elsewhere, and to be elsewhere implies the use of transport. Mechanized transport has made travel possible for a significant part of the population of the developed countries at least, and thus tourism has become a matter of interest and concern to governments and governed alike. Much of the historical study of tourism will be concerned with the development of modern transport, and other aspects of tourism have followed the evolution of a various modes of transport. Tourism is a modern sense has its antecedents historically, but it will be argued that the difference between the world of the eighteenth century and earlier, and more recent times is not merely a matter of degree, but that the world of 1850, for example, differs structurally from the world of 1750 in tourism, as is everything else.

From : Tourism, Past, Present and Future